Identifikasi Logam Berat Pencemaran Tanah Lapisan Atas Berdasarkan Nilai Suseptibilitas Magnetik pada Zona Penggunaan Lahan Berbeda di Kota Padang

Nining Jumianti, Afdal Afdal

Abstract


Pengukuran nilai suseptibilitas magnetik tanah lapisan atas untuk memperkirakan pencemaran oleh logam berat pada empat zona penggunaan lahan berbeda di Kota Padang telah dilakukan. Sampel tanah lapisan atas diambil pada zona industri, ekonomi & bisnis, perumahan dan pertanian di Kota Padang. Sampel tanah diambil pada kedalaman 10 cm dari permukaan tanah sebanyak 111 titik. Hasil pengukuran suseptibilitas magnetik menunjukkan nilai berkisar antara 16,88×10-8 m3kg-1 hingga 1031,40×10-8 m3kg-1. Berdasarkan nilai suseptibilitas magnetik daerah penelitian telah mengalami pencemaran dari kategori tercemar rendah hingga tercemar sangat tinggi. Zona ekomoni & bisnis memiliki nilai suseptibilitas magnetik rata-rata paling tinggi 490,15×10-8 m3kg-1 dan diperkirakan paling tercemar oleh logam berat. Sementara, zona pertanian memiliki nilai rata-rata suseptibilitas magnetik paling rendah 92,69×10-8 m3kg-1, dan diperkirakan tercemar oleh logam berat juga rendah. Nilai suseptibilitas magnetik pada zona industri, zona ekonomi & bisnis, dan zona perumahan lebih tinggi daripada sampel pembanding yaitu tanah hutan, dimana tanah hutan dianggap tidak mengalami banyak pengaruh luar berupa aktivitas manusia (antropogenik) yang menyebabkan adanya emisi pada tanah. Sedangkan zona pertanian memiliki nilai suseptibilitas magnetik lebih rendah daripada sampel pembanding sehingga tanah di daerah ini tidak mengalami percemaran logam berat. Urutan tingkat pencemaran tanah lapisan atas Kota Padang berdasarkan nilai suseptibilitas magnetik adalah zona ekonomi & bisnis > perumahan > industri > pertanian.

 

Measurement of the magnetic susceptibility values of topsoil to estimate pollution by heavy metal in four different zones in Padang City has been carried out.  Topsoil sample was taken in the industrial, economic & business, housing and agriculture zones in Padang City.  Samples were taken with 10 cm depth from the ground surface as many as 111 points.  Magnetic susceptibility value ranging from 16.88×10-8 m3kg-1 to 1031.40×10-8 m3kg-1.   Based on their magnetic susceptibility value the study area was polluted from low to very low polluted.  The economic & business zone has the highest average magnetic susceptibility of 490.15×10-8 m3kg-1 (the most polluted zone).  While the agricultural zone, was found to have the lowest average magnetic susceptibility value of 92.69×10-8 m3kg-1, so to be polluted by heavy metals is also low.  The magnetic susceptibility value in industrial zones, economic & business zones and housing zones is higher than the reference sample (forest land), where forest land is considered not to have much pollution due to human activities (anthropogenic). Meanwhile, the agriculture zone has a lower magnetic susceptibility than the reference sample so that soil in this area does not pollute by heavy metal.  The magnetic susceptibility of the zones with different land use decreases in the order of economic & business zones > housing > industry > agriculture.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.25077/jfu.9.4.550-557.2020

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