Analisis Anomali Temperatur Permukaan Tanah dan Awan Gempa Berkaitan dengan Gempa Palu 2018

Silvia Wahyuni, Marzuki Marzuki

Abstract


Anomali temperatur permukaan tanah dan awan gempa yang berkaitan gempa bumi yang terjadi di Palu 28 September 2018 telah diteliti  menggunakan data temperatur permukaan tanah dan permukaan air laut dari Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) dan data awan dari satelit Multifunction Transport Satellite (MTSAT). Data temperatur udara dari European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (EMCWF) juga digunakan untuk memastikan bahwa anomali temperatur bukan disebabkan oleh aktivitas cuaca. Anomali temperature permukaan tanah diamati selama 5 tahun dari 2014-2018 dan awan gempa diamati 3 bulan sebelum terjadi gempa bumi. Penelitian ini menemukan adanya kenaikan temperatur permukaan tanah dan air laut sebagai prekursor gempa Palu 2018. Pada saat terjadi gempa kenaikan temperatur permukaan tanah pada siang hari sebesar 2,2 K melebihi batas nilai sebagai prekursor gempa bumi (>2 K) tetapi kenaikan temperatur teramati setiap tahun. Selain itu, anomali temperatur permukaan laut hanya 0,25 K masih lebih kecil dari anomali sebagai prekursor gempa bumi (>2 K). Selama itu tidak ditemukan juga adanya kemunculan awan gempa sebelum gempa terjadi. Dengan demikian gempa Palu 2018 tidak diiringi oleh kenaikan temperatur permukaan tanah dan air laut serta kemunculan awan gempa.

 

Anomaly land surface temperature and earthquake cloud that related the 2018 Palu earthquake were examined using land and sea surface temperatures from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)  and cloud from the Multifunction Transport Satellite (MTSAT) satellite data.  Air temperature data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (EMCWF) were also used to ensure that temperature anomalies are not caused by weather activity. Land surface temperature anomalies were observed for five years from 2014-2018, and earthquake clouds were observed for three months before the earthquake. This study find an increase in the surface temperature of land and seawater as a precursor to the 2018 Palu earthquake. During the earthquake, there was an increase in land surface temperature by 2,2 K, which exceeds the limit value of anomaly land surface temperature as an earthquake precursor (> 2 K), but such an increase is observed every year. In addition, sea surface temperature anomaly is only 0,25 K, which is much smaller than the value as an earthquake precursor  (> 2 K). It was also found that there is no earthquake cloud before the Palu earthquake. Thus, the 2018 Palu earthquake was not accompanied by an increase in land and sea surface temperatures and the appearance of earthquake clouds.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.25077/jfu.9.3.352-359.2020

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